Wednesday, September 16, 2009

Jordan



Jordan 1 Dinar 2005 UNC
Front: Sharif Hussein bin Ali
Back: Great Arab Revolt

Sayyid Hussein bin Ali,

Sayyid Hussein bin Ali, GCB (1854 — June 4, 1931) was the Sharif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself King of Hejaz, which received international recognition. In 1924, he further proclaimed himself Caliph of all Muslims. He ruled Hejaz until 1924, when, defeated by Abdul Aziz al Saud, he abdicated the kingdom and other secular titles to his eldest son Ali. When Hussein declared himself King of the Hejaz, he also declared himself King of all Arabs (malik bilad-al-Arab). This aggravated his conflict with Ibn Saud, with whom he had fought before WWI on the side of the Ottomans in 1910. Two days after the Turkish Caliphate was abolished by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on March 3, 1924, Hussein declared himself Caliph at his son Abdullah's winter camp in Shunah, Transjordan. The claim to the title had a mixed reception, and he was soon ousted and driven out of Arabia by the Saudis, a rival clan that had no interest in the Caliphate. Saud defeated Hussein in 1924. Hussein continued to use the title of Caliph when living in Transjordan.

The funeral of King Hussein in Jerusalem, 1931.

Though the British had supported Hussein from the start of the Arab Revolt and the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, they elected not to help Hussein repel the Saudi attack, which eventually took Mecca, Medina, and Jeddah. He was then forced to flee to Cyprus, where he donated funds for the construction of an Armenian church. He went to live in Amman, Transjordan, where his son Abdullah was king. After his abdication, his son 'Ali briefly assumed the throne, but then he too had to flee the encroachment of Ibn Saud and his Salafi forces. His son Faisal was briefly King of Syria and later King of Iraq.

Hussein died in Amman in 1931 and is buried in Jerusalem.

Hussein Marriage and children:
Hussein, who had four wives, fathered four sons and three daughters with three of his wives. With his first wife Abdliya bin Abdullah he had:

* Prince Ali, last King of Hejaz married to Nafisa bint Abdullah.
* Prince Abdullah, Emir (later King) of Transjordan married to Musbah bint Nasser, Suzdil Hanum, and Nahda bint Uman.
* Princess Fatima - married an European Muslim Bussinesman from France.
* Prince Faisal, King of Iraq and Syria married to Huzaima bint Nasser.

With his second wife Madiha he had:

* Princess Saleha married to Abdullah bin Muhammed.

With his third wife Adila Khanmun he had:

* Princess Sara married Muhammad Atta Amin in July 1933 divorced September 1933.
* Prince Zeid, succeeded King Faisal II of Iraq on his assassination in 1958, but never ruled as Iraq became a republic. Married to Fakhrelnissa Kabaac.

Soldiers in the Arab Army during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. They are carrying the Arab Flag of the Arab Revolt and pictured in the Arabian Desert.



The Great Arab Revolt


Much of the trauma and dislocation suffered by the peoples of the Middle East during the 20th century can be traced to the events surrounding World War I. During the conflict, the Ottoman Empire sided with the Central Powers against the Allies. Seeing an opportunity to liberate Arab lands from Turkish oppression, and trusting the honor of British officials who promised their support for a unified kingdom for the Arab lands, Sharif Hussein bin Ali, Emir of Mecca and King of the Arabs (and great grandfather of King Hussein), launched the Great Arab Revolt. After the conclusion of the war, however, the victors reneged on their promises to the Arabs, carving from the dismembered Ottoman lands a patchwork system of mandates and protectorates. While the colonial powers denied the Arabs their promised single unified Arab state, it is nevertheless testimony to the effectiveness of the Great Arab Revolt that the Hashemite family was able to secure Arab rule over Transjordan, Iraq and Arabia. Read more

Information and Image Obtained From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia and kinghussein.gov.jo

2 comments:

Monetastic said...

Thank you. It is an excellent article, very interesting.

santia said...

I like Dinar.and its revaluation of currency.
Dinar

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