Monday, December 8, 2008
Turkmenistanyn 5 Manat
Front Design: Musical College; Horn-shaped Parthian rhyton (drinking horn; vessel)
Back Design: Turkmen coat of arms; Abu Seyid Mausoleum
It was introduced on November 1, 1993, replacing the Russian ruble at a rate of 1 manat = 500 ruble.
Religion in Turkmenistan
Traditionally, the Turkmen of Turkmenistan, like their kin in Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Iran are 89% Muslim, 9% Eastern Orthodox, and 2% unknown.
Although the great majority of Turkmen readily identify themselves as Muslims and acknowledge Islam as an integral part of their cultural heritage, many are [[Irreligion non-believers]] and support a revival of the religion's status only as an element of national revival. They do not attend mosque services or demonstrate their adherence publicly, except through participation in officially sanctioned national traditions associated with Islam on a popular level, including life-cycle events such as weddings, burials, and pilgrimages.
Nine percent of the country's citizens are Eastern Orthodox.
Protestantism in Turkmenistan and Roman Catholicism in Turkmenistan
Protestants account for less than 1 % of the population of Turkmenistan. There are very few Catholics in the country - around 50 in total.
The Roman Catholic Church in Turkmenistan is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome.
Catholic missionnaries became relatively more active in Turkmenistan in 2005.In 2007 there were already over 20 places of worship for Catholics in the country, of which 4were in Turkmenabat and 3 in Mary. The community in Turkmenabat alone consists of 500people, most of whom are recent converts from Islam. The community is headed by Fr. Jabbar, an Azerbaijan-born pastor.
Hinduism spread in Turkmenistan by Hare Krishna Missionaries. Hare Krishnas are a minority community in Turkmenistan. Many of the 600 Indians in Turkmenistan are Hindu.
Major Hare Krishna festival banned in April 2005
Officials warned the Hare Krishna community in the capital Ashgabad not to hold celebrations on 17 and 18 April for the festival of Rama Navami, an annual celebration marking the appearance of Lord Sri Ramachandra and one of the most important Hare Krishna festivals Major Hare Krishna festival banned in April 2005
Bahá'í Faith in Turkmenistan
The Bahá'í Faith in Turkmenistan begins before Russian advances into the region when the area was under the influence of Persia.By 1887 a community of Bahá'í refugees from religious violence in Persia had made a religious center in Ashgabat Shortly afterwards — by 1894 — Russia made Turkmenistan part of the Russian Empire.While the Bahá'í Faith spread across the Russian Empire and attracted the attention of scholars and artists, the Bahá'í community in Ashgabat built the first Bahá'í House of Worship, elected one of the first Bahá'í local administrative institutions and was a center of scholarship. However during the Soviet period religious persecution made the Bahá'í community almost disappear - however Bahá'ís who moved into the regions in the 1950s did identify individuals still adhering to the religion. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in late 1991, Bahá'í communities and their administrative bodies started to develop across the nations of the former Soviet Union; In 1994 Turkmenistan elected its own National Spiritual Assembly however laws passed in 1995 in Turkmenistan required 500 adult religious adherents in each locality for registration and no Bahá'í community in Turkmenistan could meet this requirement. As of 2007 the religion had still failed to reach the minimum number of adherents to register and individuals have had their homes raided for Bahá'í literature.
Freedom of religion is guaranteed by article 11 of the Constitution of Turkmenistan. However, like other human rights, in practice it does not exist. Former President Saparmurat Niyazov's book of spiritual writings, the Ruhnama, is imposed on all religious communities. According to Forum 18, despite international pressure, the authorities severely repress all religious groups, and the legal framework is so constrictive that many prefer to exist underground rather than have to pass through all of the official hurdles. Protestant Christian adherents are affected, in addition to groups such as Jehovah's Witnesses, Bahá'í, and Hare Krishna. Jehovah's Witnesses have been imprisoned and suffered beatings due to being conscientious objectors.
Information obtained from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia